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دانلود فایل Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks کتاب Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor

دانلود فایل Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks کتاب Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networksفهرست : About the Series Editors xv
Preface xvii
Part One: INTRODUCTION
1 Motivation for a Network of Wireless Sensor Nodes 3
1.1 Definitions and Background 4
1.1.1 Sensing and Sensors 4
1.1.2 Wireless Sensor Networks 7
1.2 Challenges and Constraints 9
1.2.1 Energy 10
1.2.2 Self-Management 11
1.2.3 Wireless Networking 11
1.2.4 Decentralized Management 12
1.2.5 Design Constraints 12
1.2.6 Security 13
1.2.7 Other Challenges 13
Exercises 14
References 15
2 Applications 17
2.1 Structural Health Monitoring 17
2.1.1 Sensing Seismic Events 18
2.1.2 Single Damage Detection Using Natural Frequencies 19
2.1.3 Multiple Damage Detection Using Natural Frequencies 19
2.1.4 Multiple Damage Detection Using Mode Shapes 20
2.1.5 Coherence 21
2.1.6 Piezoelectric Effect 22
2.1.7 Prototypes 24
2.2 Traffic Control 26
2.2.1 The Sensing Task 26
2.2.2 Prototypes 30
2.3 Health Care 30
2.3.1 Available Sensors 32
2.3.2 Prototypes 32
viii Contents
2.4 Pipeline Monitoring 35
2.4.1 Prototype 35
2.5 Precision Agriculture 36
2.5.1 Prototypes 37
2.6 Active Volcano 38
2.6.1 Prototypes 39
2.7 Underground Mining 40
2.7.1 Sources of Accidents 41
2.7.2 The Sensing Task 42
Exercises 42
References 44
3 Node Architecture 47
3.1 The Sensing Subsystem 48
3.1.1 Analog-to-Digital Converter 48
3.2 The Processor Subsystem 51
3.2.1 Architectural Overview 52
3.2.2 Microcontroller 54
3.2.3 Digital Signal Processor 54
3.2.4 Application-Specific Integrated Circuit 55
3.2.5 Field Programmable Gate Array 56
3.2.6 Comparison 57
3.3 Communication Interfaces 58
3.3.1 Serial Peripheral Interface 58
3.3.2 Inter-Integrated Circuit 59
3.3.3 Summary 61
3.4 Prototypes 62
3.4.1 The IMote Node Architecture 63
3.4.2 The XYZ Node Architecture 64
3.4.3 The Hogthrob Node Architecture 65
Exercises 66
References 68
4 Operating Systems 69
4.1 Functional Aspects 70
4.1.1 Data Types 70
4.1.2 Scheduling 70
4.1.3 Stacks 71
4.1.4 System Calls 71
4.1.5 Handling Interrupts 71
4.1.6 Multithreading 72
4.1.7 Thread-Based vs Event-Based Programming 72
4.1.8 Memory Allocation 73
4.2 Nonfunctional Aspects 73
4.2.1 Separation of Concern 73
4.2.2 System Overhead 74
Contents ix
4.2.3 Portability 74
4.2.4 Dynamic Reprogramming 74
4.3 Prototypes 75
4.3.1 TinyOS 75
4.3.2 SOS 78
4.3.3 Contiki 80
4.3.4 LiteOS 85
4.4 Evaluation 88
Exercises 90
References 91
Part Two: BASIC ARCHITECTURAL FRAMEWORK
5 Physical Layer 95
5.1 Basic Components 95
5.2 Source Encoding 96
5.2.1 The Efficiency of a Source Encoder 98
5.2.2 Pulse Code Modulation and Delta Modulation 100
5.3 Channel Encoding 101
5.3.1 Types of Channels 103
5.3.2 Information Transmission over a Channel 104
5.3.3 Error Recognition and Correction 106
5.4 Modulation 106
5.4.1 Modulation Types 106
5.4.2 Quadratic Amplitude Modulation 114
5.4.3 Summary 117
5.5 Signal Propagation 117
Exercises 119
References 123
6 Medium Access Control 125
6.1 Overview 125
6.1.1 Contention-Free Medium Access 127
6.1.2 Contention-Based Medium Access 127
6.2 Wireless MAC Protocols 128
6.2.1 Carrier Sense Multiple Access 129
6.2.2 Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (MACA) and MACAW 129
6.2.3 MACA By Invitation 130
6.2.4 IEEE 802.11 130
6.2.5 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee 132
6.3 Characteristics of MAC Protocols in Sensor Networks 133
6.3.1 Energy Efficiency 133
6.3.2 Scalability 134
6.3.3 Adaptability 134
x Contents
6.3.4 Low Latency and Predictability 135
6.3.5 Reliability 135
6.4 Contention-Free MAC Protocols 135
6.4.1 Characteristics 136
6.4.2 Traffic-Adaptive Medium Access 136
6.4.3 Y-MAC 137
6.4.4 DESYNC-TDMA 139
6.4.5 Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy 140
6.4.6 Lightweight Medium Access Control 143
6.5 Contention-Based MAC Protocols 144
6.5.1 Power Aware Multi-Access with Signaling 144
6.5.2 Sensor MAC 146
6.5.3 Timeout MAC 146
6.5.4 Pattern MAC 148
6.5.5 Routing-Enhanced MAC 149
6.5.6 Data-Gathering MAC 151
6.5.7 Preamble Sampling and WiseMAC 152
6.5.8 Receiver-Initiated MAC 153
6.6 Hybrid MAC Protocols 154
6.6.1 Zebra MAC 154
6.6.2 Mobility Adaptive Hybrid MAC 156
6.7 Summary 157
Exercises 157
References 161
7 Network Layer 163
7.1 Overview 163
7.2 Routing Metrics 165
7.2.1 Commonly Used Metrics 166
7.3 Flooding and Gossiping 168
7.4 Data-Centric Routing 170
7.4.1 Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation 170
7.4.2 Directed Diffusion 172
7.4.3 Rumor Routing 174
7.4.4 Gradient-Based Routing 175
7.5 Proactive Routing 176
7.5.1 Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector 176
7.5.2 Optimized Link State Routing 177
7.6 On-Demand Routing 178
7.6.1 Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector 178
7.6.2 Dynamic Source Routing 179
7.7 Hierarchical Routing 180
7.8 Location-Based Routing 183
7.8.1 Unicast Location-Based Routing 183
7.8.2 Multicast Location-Based Routing 188
7.8.3 Geocasting 189
Contents xi
7.9 QoS-Based Routing Protocols 192
7.9.1 Sequential Assignment Routing 192
7.9.2 SPEED 193
7.9.3 Multipath Multi-SPEED 194
7.10 Summary 196
Exercises 197
References 203
Part Three: NODE AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT
8 Power Management 207
8.1 Local Power Management Aspects 208
8.1.1 Processor Subsystem 208
8.1.2 Communication Subsystem 209
8.1.3 Bus Frequency and RAM Timing 210
8.1.4 Active Memory 210
8.1.5 Power Subsystem 212
8.2 Dynamic Power Management 216
8.2.1 Dynamic Operation Modes 216
8.2.2 Dynamic Scaling 219
8.2.3 Task Scheduling 222
8.3 Conceptual Architecture 222
8.3.1 Architectural Overview 223
Exercises 225
References 227
9 Time Synchronization 229
9.1 Clocks and the Synchronization Problem 229
9.2 Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks 231
9.2.1 Reasons for Time Synchronization 231
9.2.2 Challenges for Time Synchronization 232
9.3 Basics of Time Synchronization 234
9.3.1 Synchronization Messages 234
9.3.2 Nondeterminism of Communication Latency 236
9.4 Time Synchronization Protocols 237
9.4.1 Reference Broadcasts Using Global Sources of Time 237
9.4.2 Lightweight Tree-Based Synchronization 238
9.4.3 Timing-sync Protocol for Sensor Networks 239
9.4.4 Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol 240
9.4.5 Reference-Broadcast Synchronization 242
9.4.6 Time-Diffusion Synchronization Protocol 244
9.4.7 Mini-Sync and Tiny-Sync 245
Exercises 246
References 247
xii Contents
10 Localization 249
10.1 Overview 249
10.2 Ranging Techniques 250
10.2.1 Time of Arrival 250
10.2.2 Time Difference of Arrival 251
10.2.3 Angle of Arrival 251
10.2.4 Received Signal Strength 252
10.3 Range-Based Localization 252
10.3.1 Triangulation 252
10.3.2 Trilateration 253
10.3.3 Iterative and Collaborative Multilateration 255
10.3.4 GPS-Based Localization 256
10.4 Range-Free Localization 258
10.4.1 Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS) 258
10.4.2 Approximate Point in Triangulation 259
10.4.3 Localization Based on Multidimensional Scaling 260
10.5 Event-Driven Localization 262
10.5.1 The Lighthouse Approach 262
10.5.2 Multi-Sequence Positioning 263
Exercises 264
References 266
11 Security 267
11.1 Fundamentals of Network Security 267
11.2 Challenges of Security in Wireless Sensor Networks 269
11.3 Security Attacks in Sensor Networks 270
11.3.1 Denial-of-Service 270
11.3.2 Attacks on Routing 272
11.3.3 Attacks on Transport Layer 272
11.3.4 Attacks on Data Aggregation 273
11.3.5 Privacy Attacks 273
11.4 Protocols and Mechanisms for Security 274
11.4.1 Symmetric and Public Key Cryptography 274
11.4.2 Key Management 274
11.4.3 Defenses Against DoS Attacks 275
11.4.4 Defenses Against Aggregation Attacks 276
11.4.5 Defenses Against Routing Attacks 277
11.4.6 Security Protocols for Sensor Networks 278
11.4.7 TinySec 279
11.4.8 Localized Encryption and Authentication Protocol 280
11.5 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee Security 280
11.6 Summary 281
Exercises 282
References 283
Contents xiii
12 Sensor Network Programming 285
12.1 Challenges in Sensor Network Programming 285
12.2 Node-Centric Programming 286
12.2.1 nesC Language 286
12.2.2 TinyGALS 289
12.2.3 Sensor Network Application Construction Kit 291
12.2.4 Thread-Based Model 292
12.3 Macroprogramming 293
12.3.1 Abstract Regions 293
12.3.2 EnviroTrack 293
12.3.3 Database Approaches 294
12.4 Dynamic Reprogramming 295
12.5 Sensor Network Simulators 297
12.5.1 Network Simulator Tools and Environments 297
Exercises 299
References 300
Index 303

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